Pest Control with Enhanced Environmental Safety

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How to Use Insect Attractants

A critical evaluation of recent advances in the use of recombinant DNA technology to enhance the insecticidal activity of naturally occurring insect viruses also is presented.

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This article targets scientists with a background in classical insecticide toxicology. Background references including recent advances in the molecular biology and use of baculoviruses essential in evaluating genetic modification of these viruses for insect control are presented.

Vision & Mission - Pest Control Singapore | Termite Pest Control

This review of naturally occurring phytochemicals with biological activity against plant-parasitic nematodes focuses on several diverse classes of compounds, including polythienyls, alkaloids, phenolics, polyacetylenes, fatty acids, terpenoids, and others. The nematotoxic mode of action and physiological role of most of these compounds in plants are unknown, although some are synthesized in response to nematode infection.

Only a few plant families, primarily the Asteraceae and Fabaceae, have been examined for existence of nematotoxic substances. In a few cases, synthetic analogs of naturally occurring compounds have been synthesized and have possessed stronger biological activity than the naturally occurring ones.

Enhanced research and development of phytochemical nematicides and analogs could provide safe, selective compounds for minimizing the multibillion dollar annual losses inflicted by phytoparasitic nematodes in the U. The phenylpyrroles are a new class of agricultural fungicides related to the natural antibiotic pyrrolnitrin, which is produced by Pseudomonas spp. Pyrrolnitrin fulfills the main requirements of natural products, namely it has interesting biological activity and possesses a simple enough structure to allow the synthesis of analogues.

A second area offering a new approach to disease control is that of systemic acquired resistance SAR utilizing chemicals with no direct bactericidal or fungicidal effect. Agents which induce SAR include the rice blasticide probenazole and the immunization compound 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid and its ester. For successful biocontrol, timing and placement of inoculum of biocontrol agents can be more important than the population size of the biocontrol agent. Delivery of the biocontrol agent is often timed so that it coincides with a period of low biological diversity and maximum pathogen accessibility.

Control strategies include: 1 protection of the root or seed; 2 impeding the progress of the pathogen; and 3 destruction of pathogen inoculum. In addition to being in the right place at the right time, the biocontrol agent must also express specific traits at the appropriate time. Traits associated with biocontrol agents include competition for nutrients and production of antibiotics and enzymes.


The history of fungicides demonstrates a movement toward compounds that are less likely to produce adverse environmental effects. The primary concerns about fungicide residues have focused on chronic toxicity, carcinogenicity in particular, resulting from dietary exposure. Because of their low acute non-target toxicity, fungicides have not been as actively sought in environmental monitoring as other classes of pesticides; their residues are rarely found in random sampling of soil, water, and air.

Effects on microorganisms other than pathogenic fungi are the most likely non-target impacts of fungicide use. Industry is currently taking a proactive approach to discover and develop new products with minimum environmental impact and an improved toxicological profile. Pair your accounts. Your Mendeley pairing has expired.

Please reconnect. Duke 1 Julius J. Menn 2 Jack R. Plimmer 3. Publication Date Print : March 12, Department of Agriculture. Joan Comstock M.

Pest Control with Enhanced Environmental Safety (ACS Symposium Series)

Joan Comstock i-iv DOI: First Page PDF. Duke Julius J. Menn Jack R. Abell J. Schloss A. Abstract PDF ABSTRACT The successful design of novel pesticides depends on careful consideration of a number of factors including target enzyme selection and validation, inhibitor design, delivery of the inhibitor to the target, and its metabolic fate. Eckes G. Abstract PDF ABSTRACT Chemical plant protection will be always needed, but the application of gene technology can reduce the impact of agriculture to the environment and offer new attractive systems for weed control to the farmer.

Nandihalli Stephen O.

Zorner S. Evans S. Christy K. Herbst S. Kostka J. Mullen P. Sands R. Natural Phytotoxins as Herbicides Stephen O. Hawkinson John E. Miyamoto M. Hirano Y.

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Takimoto M. Recent Progress in Avermectin Research M. Bjostad Bruce E. Hibbard Whitney S. Insecticidal Pyrroles D.

Insecticides with Novel Modes of Action

Kuhn R. Addor R. Diehl J. Furch V. Kamhi K. Henegar K.

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  7. Kremer G. Lowen B. Black T. Good news from our collaborative research is that the most effective plant for pest management observed is locally available, can repel burrowing and destructive rodents in banana fields, and is a source of soil nitrogen. Good news spreads and so the network of four groups has yielded into knowledge dissemination to nonmembers within and without their communities.

    Neighboring farmers and NGOs that promote sustainable production have been learning from the network and inquiring plant materials for use in their areas. The program is now taking a picture of the business opportunity, a chance for farmers to increase their income from selling botanicals, meanwhile protecting their crops against pests. We, in collaboration with the University of Greenwich, have produced videos narrated in English and local languages on how to use botanical pesticides as a learning tool for other farmers. Botanical pesticides persist less in the environment, they can be made available through propagation of right plant species and can be prepared using simple and local methodologies.

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    7. Using botanical pesticide by small scale farmers is envisaged to trigger local commercialization and value addition of natural resources.

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