Intrinsic Motivation


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The following argument can explain the main effect of this extrinsic motivator: Relational rewards initiate salient stimuli strong enough to be recognized by consultants. Without salient stimuli, no creative or innovative action would follow Gerrig and Zimbardo, In addition to awareness of the rewards, it is argued that these employees value the relational rewards they receive. Without any appreciation of these HRM practices, less creative and innovative performance would occur Rose, ; Malik et al.

intrinsic motivation

Referring to the dynamic componential model of creativity and innovation in organizations of Amabile and Pratt , the results showed that HRM practices, in the form of relational rewards, have an essential impact on creativity and innovation. It is therefore expected that the satisfaction of the basic psychological need for competence will be met. It is assumed that this increases autonomous motivation and, in turn, leads to better performance Ryan and Deci, The impact of relational rewards on creative and innovative outputs is notably greater when the intrinsic motivation of knowledge workers is high.

This finding supports the assumed boosting effect on performance from Amabile Additionally, no crowding-out effect occurred by using extrinsic motivators as defined by Kohn Therefore, relational rewards, as a synergistic extrinsic motivator, can add positively to intrinsic motivation as suggested by Amabile and Pratt Also, Herzberg orthogonal factor assumption differs from the current research findings which support dependencies between intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivators.

One reason for this significant positive interaction effect might be the perceived appreciation of creativity and innovation in the organization. Perception of an environment is subjective and influenced by what an individual sees, feels, and hears Atkinson, Perception might change based on past experiences Zhou and George, ; Dorenbosch et al.

In order to respond to the perceived circumstances, a stimulus — strong enough to trigger motivation — must be present Gerrig and Zimbardo, In this context, it is argued that the highly intrinsically motivated knowledge workers perceive that their organization values creativity and innovation. It is assumed that the likelihood to start new creative and innovative ventures and implement more ideas rises.

WHY INTRINSIC MOTIVATION?

More attention is given toward making improvements on the job and seeing aspects from different perspectives. This result supports the importance of Amabile and Pratt organizational component HRM practices. The theoretical assumption of Amabile and Pratt on synergistic extrinsic motivators can also be supported with the SDT of Ryan and Deci When self-determination is given, extrinsic motivators can add positively to the outcome. Self-determination can be reached through the satisfaction of the psychological needs.

Several indicators support the need satisfaction of knowledge workers. The highly intrinsically motivated consultants feel most likely satisfied in their need for autonomy due to task ownership and their willingness to take responsibility early on Schlossbauer, Additionally, their feeling of competence is triggered by the usage of their know-how and is argued to rise further with verbal praise and feedback because it complements a confirmation of competence.

Moreover, it is anticipated that project-oriented employees fulfill their need for relatedness in their project environment, by providing support to their colleagues and clients Shiraki and Igarashi, Since the three basic psychological needs have not been empirically tested, it is recommended that future research should specifically analyze their interplay with creative and innovative behavior. Additionally, an emphasis should be set on the different extrinsic motivation types of the SDT from Ryan and Deci The exact and diversified understanding of work motivation with its subsystems should continue to evolve Kanfer et al.

This means the higher the transactional rewards, which implied financial and training investments, the higher the creative and innovative outcome. This result is controversial to Malik et al. This finding is aligned with previous research findings by Condly et al. However, neither Condly et al. A reason for the significant main effect might be that consultants generally expect a bonus as part of their annual salary for a job well done.

According to Deci and Ryan , such usage of bonuses to acknowledge individual good work is very effective. However, it is argued that the valuation of bonuses is a pre-requisite for their effectiveness because, without any appreciation of these HRM practices, creative and innovative performance would not be likely to occur Rose, ; Malik et al. Thus, besides the relational rewards, transactional rewards as a HRM practice can also foster creativity and innovation.

This indicates that transactional rewards do not have to imply a synergistic nor a crowding-out effect. The findings of Eisenberger and Shanock provide evidence that monetary rewards only increase creativity when employees are aware of the necessity as to why creative performance should happen. This finding is aligned with Malik et al.

Based on current results, it can be argued that the link between these tangible rewards and the commitment to pursue more creative and innovative work may not be specific and clear enough. A second reason for the non-significant effect could be that the standard deviation of 0.

This number indicates that employees perceive the likelihood of receiving a reward very different among each other. On average, only about one-third of all employees in a company receive rewards CEB, Statistically, the remaining two-thirds of employees consider the likelihood of receiving transactional rewards to be low. Therefore, it is argued that the awareness, salience, and accessibility of the creativity-contingent transactional rewards, combined with strong intrinsic motivation, seem to be too little to cause a significant result. In summary, the two extrinsic motivator effects support the assumption of Amabile et al.

The results for relational and transactional rewards are also aligned with the SDT of Ryan and Deci which distinguishes between different types of extrinsic motivation with various effects. When interpreting these results, four main limitations have to be considered. First, the research used self-measurements for all variables as the sole and primary data source. Therefore, the reliability of the data may have been compromised. Although self-evaluation is the most commonly used method of analysis at the individual level Anderson et al.

Instead of providing truthful information, they could indicate how they would like their motivation and creative and innovative performance to be perceived Bryman and Bell, Manager reports could resolve this limitation. Since only the individuals themselves know best how to perceive their environment, the self-assessment approach seemed justified, as suggested by Organ et al. For future studies, it is recommended to test the results of the research with longitudinal study designs and to select multi-level approaches that examine on an individual, team, and organizational level — and thus, enrich the database.

Second, this study might be considered limited in its scale reliability for the motivational sub-systems. Not all alpha values measured in this study met this criterion. Nevertheless, besides the fact that intrinsic motivation had such high importance for the investigated model that it could not be excluded from the analyses, 0.

Moreover, intrinsic motivation presents a psychological construct. According to Kline , such constructs with reliabilities even below 0. Third, this research has explicitly analyzed intrinsic motivation and extrinsic reward motivators. Extrinsic motivators are directly related to concrete HRM practices, and thus, represent ways in which companies can influence creative and innovative performance. Hence, the focus has been on these constructs. Gerrig and Zimbardo assume that extrinsic motivators are a prerequisite of extrinsic motivation.

Nevertheless, extrinsic motivation was not directly measured. Future research should empirically measure and compare a more sophisticated breakdown of different motivational systems in relation to creative and innovative performance.

Understanding Extrinsic Motivation

For example, Ryan and Deci four different types of extrinsic motivation that fall along a continuum between autonomous and controlled motivation can guide future research. Fourth, these research results may be limited to the creativity and innovation performance of knowledge workers in a given consulting firm. Generalization issues might occur due to the purposely, non-random sampling of the survey participants as they were generated through the personal business network of one of the researchers. This method was used for reasons of accessibility and resource constraints, as it was the case in several other studies Choi et al.

For future studies, however, it is recommended to apply different companies and industries. These would enable the analysis of causal inference related to the findings across various industries. Furthermore, future research should shed light on whether different ages of knowledge workers have an impact on their creative and innovative performance. The results supported the positive impact intrinsic motivation has on creativity and innovation.

However, because not every employee has an inherently interesting job, employers cannot rely solely on the intrinsic motivation of their employees. In order to promote creativity and innovation in a targeted manner and to make use of this often untapped human potential, extrinsic motivators should also be considered. In particular, leaders are strongly advised to understand the needs of their employees, as well as to be familiar with the organizational targets in order to implement effective HRM practices Joshi, The research findings suggested that HRM practices in the form of individual praise, symbolic public recognition, and performance feedback along with intrinsic motivation foster the creative and innovative outcomes of knowledge workers.

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How to Use Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation to Start Your Business

However, it should be noted that each company is characterized by specific values and circumstances with different perceptions and behaviors of its employees Malik et al. Country-specific and cultural differences may require local adjustments to some extent in order to achieve the intended outcomes. Most important, the reward tools have to be salient for the individuals in order to let creative and innovation actions occur. Additionally, knowledge workers need to appreciate the incentives offered and need to be aware of how rewards can be achieved. It is recommended that creative people are recognized for their creative and innovative efforts.

Such an appreciation should be done even if the activity itself does not lead to an innovation of economic value Amabile and Pratt, In addition, it should be noted that providing a relational reward to one employee may be perceived as negative by another employee who does not receive a reward Joshi, Establishing an effective reward system requires time and perseverance. Academics are still at an early stage of understanding the relevance of environmental factors, their relationship to motivational subsystems, and their impact on creativity and innovation Soriano de Alencar, ; Anderson et al.

This survey attempted to make a contribution to these research areas. Overall, these quantitative, cross-sectional research findings help to reduce the ambiguities regarding the synergistic effects of extrinsic rewards and intrinsic motivation on the creative and innovative performance of knowledge workers.

By applying the SDT and the dynamic componential model of creativity and innovation in organizations, this research provides three contributions to the contradictory literature on motivation, creativity, and innovation:. This relationship remained significant regardless of whether other variables were added to the model. Thus, relational rewards in the form of symbolic public recognition, individual praise, and performance management can be synergistic to intrinsic motivation in terms of creativity and innovation.

This indicates that extrinsic motivators are not per se synergistic, nor do they have per se crowding-out effects with intrinsic motivation as well as with creative and innovative performance. The main ethical principles of the DGP are: No intervention in the personal rights of the polled consultants, who did not belong to a special vulnerable group, happened.

Pain, psychological stress, exhaustion, fear, or other negative effects can be excluded to be caused by this research set-up as the survey instructions emphasized that there is no right or wrong answer. Moreover, no drugs, placebos, or other substances were given to the participants. No covered participant observation and active deceptions took place while complete clarification about the research aim, procedure, and results were granted to the polled consultants.

This question stated whether the participants wanted to fill in the full questionnaire or whether they just liked to look at the questions. Moreover, all data was anonymized. No names or initials, just four generic sociodemographic characteristics job tenure, age, highest education level, and gender were interrogated. No incentives for participating in this voluntary survey were given. As these ethical DGP principals have been considered, no further ethical committee was consulted.

Research design and survey execution were done by CF. The theoretical foundation, data evaluation, and discussion were a common work by CF and CM. CF wrote the first draft of the manuscript.


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